The formula nearly doubles the absorption of key micronutrients, improving the efficiency and utilization of nutrients applied. Reduced Water Requirements Bio-charged carbon holds water while making it available to the plant when needed, allowing your soil to get more from every drop. The effective absorption is used to calculate the weight of water absorbed (W abs) by the weight of aggregate (W agg) in the mix: W abs = (EA) W agg If the aggregate is close to the OD condition when batched, it takes the aggregate some time to absorb all the water necessary to reach the SSD condition.

Cations on the soil's exchange sites serve as a source of resupply for those in soil water which were removed by plant roots or lost through leaching. The higher the CEC, the more cations which can be supplied. This is called the soil's buffer capacity. Cations can be classified as either acidic (acid- forming) or basic.