The values vδ+ and vδ− is inversely proportional to the open-loop gain A. v =VDD δ+ A (1.2) v =VEE δ− A Operation in the linear region is restricted to v δ− < Vin < vδ+. Outside this range the op-amp is driven to saturation. For a practical op-amp A=200000 and for VDD=10V and VEE =-10V, vδ+−, =±50 µV , a very small voltage. Section 2.7: Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain and Bandwidth on Circuit Performance 2.107 The data in the following table apply to internally compensated op amps. Fill in the blank entries. 2.111 An inverting amplifier with nominal gain of —50 employs an op amp having a dc gain of 104 and a Unity-gain frequency of 106 Hz.

Ideal OP AMP Model Open-loop gain : µ⇒∝ Input impedance : RI ⇒∝Ω Output impedance : RO ⇒ 0 Ω Two assumptions: 1. No current flowing in and out of the input terminals of the op-amp (high input impedance of op-amp). 2. If the output is not in saturation, the voltage between the inverting and non-inverting input terminals is zero. OP ... The amplifier is then like a normal open-loop amplifier that has very high open-loop gain, and the amplifier is saturated. Thanks to a resistor in parallel of the capacitor, the circuit behaves like an inverting amplifier with a low frequency, and saturation is avoided. 8. Op Amp Differentiator